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Full text of "Monthly performance report : Chester West"

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SOLAR/1030-79/02 

Monthly 

Performance 

Report 




CHESTER WEST 
FEBRUARY 1979 



#J^fe,U.S. Department of Energy 

National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



-NOTICE. 



This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored oy tne United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or 
process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT 
CHESTER WEST 
FEBRUARY 1979 



I. SYSTEM DESC RIPTION 

The Chester West site is a single- family residence in Huntsville, Alabama. 
Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic hot 
water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of flat-plate collectors 
with a gross area of 225 square feet. The array faces south at an angle of 
49 degrees to the horizontal. A glycerol-water solution is used as the medium 
for delivering solar energy from the collector array to storage, and water is 
the medium for delivering solar energy from storage to the space heating and 
hot water loads. Solar energy is stored aboveground in a 500-gallon water 
storage tank. Auxiliary space heating is provided by an air-to-air heat pump 
and electrical heating elements which are designed to function in parallel 
with the solar energy space heating loop. Auxiliary hot water heating is 
provided in series with the solar energy hot water heating loop through the 
use of electrical heating elements in an 80-gallon DHW tank. The system, 
shown schematically in Figure 1, has three modes of solar operation. 

Mode 1 - Col lector- to-Storage : This mode activates when the control system 
senses a sufficient temperature difference between the collector and storage 
and remains active until the temperature difference drops below the accepted 
minimum. The collected energy is transferred to storage through a ring-type, 
liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger located in the storage tank. Pump PI is 
operating. 

Mode 2 - Storage-to-Space Heating : This mode activates when there is a demand 
for space heating. Solar energy is circulated to the conditioned space by 
solar heated water from storage through a liquid-to-air heat exchanger located 
in the air-distribution duct. Pump P3 is operating. 

Mode 3 - Storage- to-DHW Tank : This mode activates when the control system 
senses a sufficient temperature difference between storage and the DHW tank, 
and remains active as long as a sufficient difference exists. Water circu- 
lates from the top of storage through a liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger 
located in the bottom of the DHW tank. Pump P2 is operating. 

II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 



INTRODUCTION 

The site was occupied during the month of February and the solar energy system 
operated continuously during the month. Solar energy satisfied 10 percent of 
the space heating requirements. In supporting the space heating requirements, 
the solar energy system provided electrical savings of 0.45 million Btu. The 
solar energy system also supported the DHW subsystem during the month. However, 



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a problem with the sensor measuring the flow of solar-heated water from storage 
to the DHW subsystem produced invalid data. This problem invalidated many DHW 
subsystem and storage performance factors. 

WEATHER CONDITIONS 

During the month, total incident solar energy on the collector array was 5.5 
million Btu for a daily average of 866 Btu per square foot. This was below 
the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical area during 
February of 1257 Btu per square foot for a south-facing plane with a tilt of 
49 degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient temperature during February 
was 40°F as compared with the long-term average for February of 44°F. The 
number of heating degree-days for the month (based on a 65°F reference) was 
701, as compared with the long-term average of 605. 

THERMAL PERFORMANCE 

System - During February the solar energy system performed somewhat poorer 
than expected. The expected performance was determined from a modified 
f-chart analysis using measured weather and subsystem loads as inputs. Solar 
energy collected was 2.2 million Btu versus an estimated 1.8 million Btu. 
Because of the missing DHW subsystem performance information, the following 
was based only on space heating subsystem loads. This would approximate 
system performance, since the space heating subsystem share of the load in 
February was over 96 percent of the total system load. Solar energy used by 
the space heating subsystem was estimated by assuming that all energy col- 
lected would be applied to the space heating subsystem load. Actual solar 
energy used by the space heating subsystem was 0.86 million Btu. The space 
heating solar fraction was 10 percent versus an estimated 21 percent. 

Collector - The total incident solar radiation on the collector array for the 
month of February was 5.5 million Btu. During the period the collector loop 
was operating the total insolation amounted to 4.4 million Btu. The total 
collected solar energy for the month of February was 2.2 million Btu, result- 
ing in a collector array efficiency of 41 percent, based on total incident 
insolation. Solar energy delivered from the collector array to storage was 
2.1 million Btu. Energy loss during transfer from the collector array to 
storage was 0.1 million Btu. This loss represented 5 percent of the energy 
collected. Operating energy required by the collector loop was 0.16 million 
Btu. 

Storage - Solar energy delivered to storage was 2.1 million Btu. There were 
0.86 million Btu delivered from storage to the space heating subsystem. The 
average storage temperature for the month was 89°F. 

DHW Load - The DHW subsystem consumed an unknown amount of solar energy and 
0.52 million Btu of auxiliary electrical energy to satisfy a hot water load of 
0.33 million Btu. The DHW subsystem consumed a total of 0.17 million Btu of 
operating energy. A daily average of 16 gallons of DHW was consumed at an 
average temperature of 140°F delivered from the tank. 



Space Heating Load - Ten percent of the 8.6 million Btu space heating load was 
satisfied by 0.86 million Btu of solar energy. An auxiliary electrical heat 
pump and resistance heater used 8.0 million Btu of electrical fuel to satisfy 
the remaining 7.7 million Btu space heating load. This auxiliary requirement 
indicated a heat pump operating below its optimum performance level. The 
space heating subsystem consumed a total of 0.49 million Btu of operating 
energy, resulting in an electrical energy savings of 0.45 million Btu. 

OBSERVATIONS 

Problems existed with liquid flow sensors in both the DHW and space heating 
loops. In the latter case, a fall-back position to the air side of the space 
heating subsystem was possible; however, a work-around was not possible for 
the DHW subsystem. Therefore, many DHW and storage performance factors were 
invalidated. Additional anomalies in the DHW subsystem should be noted. The 
DHW loop pump tended to stay on too long and resulted in some energy being 
removed from the DHW subsystem and returned to storage. The amount was 
unmeasured but believed to be small. Also, there was a slight water seepage 
from the storage tank. 

ENERGY SAVINGS 

The space heating subsystem contributed an electrical energy savings of 0.45 
million Btu. 



III. ACTION STATUS 

A new storage tank is to be installed in March by the grantee. Flow sensor 
operation in the DHW and space heating loop is to be investigated during the 
next site visit by Boeing. The system designer is investigating pump opera- 
tion in the DHW loop. 



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